- Die Seekriege, Seeschlachten und Duelle auf See von 1775 bis 1815
Chronologie der europäischen Seekriege 1793 bis 1815, Band 1, bis 1802
Chronologie der europäischen Seekriege 1793 - 1815
Band 1 : Von 1793 bis zum Frieden von Amiens 1802

von Thomas Siebe
Sprache: Deutsch Broschiert - 224 Seiten - BoD
ISBN 978-3-8423-2883-9 Erschienen: September 2010
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Beispiel 1 - Beispiel 2 - Beispiel 3

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Berichte von Commander Charles Dashwood von der englischen Brigg-Sloop SYLPH (18) zu zwei Gefechten mit einem unbekannten Dreimaster vor der nordspanischen Küste

Die folgenden Extrakte des offiziellen Berichts von Commander Charles Dashwood an Admiral Cornwallis sind der NAVAL CHRONICLE von 1801, Band 6, und der ROYAL NAVAL BIOGRAPHY, Band 2, London 1824, von John Marshall, entnommen. Die Extrakte weichen jedoch leicht voneinander ab. Rot gekennzeichnet sind die Abweichungen aus der CHRONICLE, blau und in eckigen Klammern hervorgehoben sind die Abweichnungen aus der BIOGRAPHY. In brauner Schrift erscheinen die interessanten Fussnoten Marshalls.

Dashwoods Bericht über das Gefecht vom 31. Juli 1801

SYLPH,  at sea, August 1, 1801.

Sir - I have the honour of acquainting you, that being off St. Andero with his Majesty's sloop [brig] under my direction [command], [ in obedience to my orders,] I last evening gave chase to an armed schooner, then standing to the N. E. ; but before there was a possibility of arriving up with her, a large frigate was discovered close under the land, standing towards us, to whom the schooner fled for refuge. Unwilling to quit the station you assigned me, I stood towards them, but as the night approached, and observing them to be undismayed by the appearance of the Sylph, with no probability of gaining the wind (for they were directly in the wind's eye), at a little after sunset I shortened sail, hove to, and prepared for battle, there to wait the result. At this time the hull of the frigate was clearly discernible. The light airs from the southward did not permit her to arrive up till eleven o'clock, at which period, from her not answering the private signal, and being within half gun-shot, I gave directions to commence the action ; the enemy bearing down in a silent and most masterly manner, instantly returned it,and soon closed to within that of a pistol [soon came within hail]. At this distance, and being precisely abreast of each other, the battle continued with equal vigour for one hour and twenty minutes; when finding the sails, standing, and almost all the running, rigging cut to pieces, one gun dismounted, several shot between wind and water, and the brig in an unmanageable state, I conceived it most advisable to edge away a little to repair the damages we had sustained. I was the more inclined to act thus, not from any advantage the enemy had gained over us, but from his [her] position, which was admirably calculated for boarding, and which I was naturally anxious to avoid, I soon, however, perceived she was not in a situation even to follow us ; I [and] consequently hove to,[.] and the remaining part of the night we were busily employed in putting the Sylph in a situation to
maintain her station ; at day-light the enemy was found six or seven miles ahead, and to windward, with his [her] fore-yard on deck, and [apparently] otherwise damaged, not having any head sail set but his foretop-mast stay-sail. Seeing her in this situation, I conceived it my duty to endeavour to renew the action, and therefore made all sail possible, wearing occasionally (for I dare not venture to tack), for that purpose, but before I could accomplish it, the enemy, having swayed up his fore yard, wore at seven o'clock, [the enemy´s ship swayed up her fore-yard, wore,] and made all sail for the land. The wind having, however, in the course of the night changed in a violent squall [during the night] to the N. W. with every appearance of blowing, and a rising sea, and finding the main-mast to be severely wounded, with the momentary expectation of its going over the side, the sloop [brig] making a foot and a half water an hour, together with the enemy's great superiority, [she] having fourteen [14] ports of aside on [on each side of] her main-deck, exclusive of the bridle, and evidently carrying 44 or 46 guns, I found it impossible to follow her with the most distant hope of success, and accordingly wore and stood to the northward, which, I trust, will meet your approbation. I beg permission to remark, that although the British colours were kept flying from the break of day to the moment of the enemy's wearing and standing to the southward, yet he [she] carefully avoided showing his [hers]; I am, therefore, at a loss to know whether she was a French or Spanish frigate, though I am inclined to think, from various circumstances, she belongs to France. Although I lament exceedingly the loss of one [1] man killed, and nine [9] wounded, three [3] of whom I much fear are dangerously so, yet it is a
consolation to reflect that more mischief was not done, considering the situation of the two vessels, which can only be attributed to their unceasing exertions to disable us [* Fussnote von Marschall : The Sylph´s main-mast was shot through in several places. Upwards to 250 large shot passed through her boom-maissail alone.].

Anmerkung von Es gibt einige Indizien im Text, die nahelegen, dass der ursprüngliche Text Dashwoods sowohl in der CHRONICLE als auch in Marshalls Publikation zumindest gekürzt wurde und zwar in beiden Versionen an unterschiedlichen Stellen. Damit wäre keine der beiden Versionen identisch mit dem Bericht, den Admiral Cornwallis und die Admiralität ursprünglich in die Hände bekamen. Die interessanteste Diskrepanz beider Versionen sind die Angaben zur Gefechtsdistanz. Die CHRONICLE-Version spricht von Pistolenschussweite, die Marshall-Version von "within hail", innerhalb von Rufweite also. Mindestens einer der beiden Autoren bzw. Dashwood selbst haben also hier die Aussage der Passage verändert, mit welcher Absicht auch immer.

 The Naval History of Great Britain: During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars The Naval History of Great Britain: During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
von William James, Andrew Lambert
Sprache: Englisch
Gebunden - 568 Seiten - Stackpole Books

Erscheinungsdatum: März 2003

Dashwoods Bericht über das Gefecht vom 28. September 1801

SYLPH,  at sea, September 29, 1801.

Sir - I have the honour to acquaint you, that yesterday afternoon I gave chase, in his Majesty's sloop under my directions, to a sail in the N. W., Cape Pinas bearing south, distance forty-two [42] leagues.  Although before sun-set I clearly discovered her to be a French frigate (each having hoisted their respective colours) [* Fussnote von Marschall : The enemy´s ship in this occasion displayed her colours.] , of a large description, having fifteen ports of a side on her main-deck, and evidently carrying 44 or 46 guns, yet confident of support from the well known bravery of my Officers and crew; I determined to engage the enemy, notwithstanding her superior force, I therefore made the necessary arrangements for bringing her to close acion. After various manoeuvres, in which each ship endeavoured to gain the wind, and which were executed under a press of sail, and some heavy broadsides were given and received on thrice passing each other, within a little more than the length of the Sylph, yet, by the silent attention to, and by the prompt execution of my orders, I was enabled, at half past seven o'clock, to place the sloop [brig] within pistol-shot on his [her] weather bow, when being reduced to commanding canvas, a most severe conflict took place, which continued without intermission, and with increased vigour on the part of his Majesty's seamen, for two hours and five minutes, when the enemy wore and made sail on the opposite tack. I was most assiduously anxious to maintain the position I had laboured to obtain, conceiving it best calculated for annoying the enemy, with the least risk to ourselves, and had the good fortune to succeed to the very last moment, the enemy appearing appalled at the astonishing fire we kept up, never daring [dared] to advance ; and on his
frequently edging away to bring his broadside to bear, so was the Sylph edged away accordingly, by which means, and their unceasing exertions [endeavours] to disable us, I attribute[d] our extreme good fortune in having only Mr. Lionel Carey, Midshipman, slightly wounded
[* Fussnote von Marschall : The gentleman alluded to above. The other officers mentioned by Captain Dashwood in those letters, were Mr. Burgess, the first Lieutenant; Messrs. Watts (acting Lieutenant), Allward (the Master), and John Mitchell (Master´s Mate); the whole of whom he highly commended.].
Thus having evidently the advantage, and having most effectually beaten her off, I would have followed up the blow, had their been even a distant chance of succeeding, but finding the sails, standing
and running rigging cut to pieces, the maintop-mast very severely [badly] wounded, and by an unfortunate shot completely unrigged, without the possibility of setting any sail on it, rendered a pursuit imprafticable. I therefore got up another mast, and having repaired the various damages we had sustained, I have great pleasure in stating, that at day-light his Majesty's sloop was in a situation to renew the contest, had the enemy been in sight. Having received certain information since my return to the [this] station you honoured me, that the ship which the Sylph was engaged with some time since (the particulars of which I had the honour of transmitting to you in my letter of the ist of August last), was the French frigate L'Artemise, of 44 guns and 350 men, so I can with equal truth pronounce this to be the same, from the many corresponding observations which I made. She had then twenty [20] men killed and forty [40] wounded, and was obliged to return to St. Andero to refit
[* Fussnote von Marschall : The French journals of that period also stated, that the Captain of her was tried by a court-martial, and condemned to be shot, for his conduct on that occasion; which sentence Buonaparte approved and ordered to be carried into execution.];  and from the disordered state which she was in on her [when] making off, I have the stongest reason to suppose she has [now] met with a similar fate, particularly as a number of lights and men were seen hanging over her bows, from which I infer she must have received considerable damage, and I think there is every probability of some of his Majesty's frigates falling in with her, as I unluckily parted with the Immortalite a few hours before [* Fussnote von Marschall : L'Artemise was destroyed, after having been chased on shore near Brest, by a part of the British blockading squadron, in 1809.].

Anmerkung von Auch im zweiten Bericht Dashwoods fällt es schwer, zu sagen, ob es sich um, wenn überhaupt, bei einer der beiden Versionen um den Originalbericht handelt.

Der Schiffbruch der Fregatte Medusa. Ein dokumentarischer Roman aus dem Jahr 1818

Der Schiffbruch der Fregatte Medusa. Ein dokumentarischer Roman aus dem Jahr 1818
von J. B. H. Savigny, Alexandre Correard
Sprache: Deutsch
Taschenbuch - 253 Seiten - Matthes & Seitz Berlin

Die berühmte Höllenfahrt der Überlebenden der MEDUSA,
die auf einem steuerlosen Floß treibend um ihr Leben kämpften.

Auszüge aus der NAVAL CHRONICLE

- Unterstreichungen von

14. August 1801

Came in the Sylph, of 18 guns, Captain Dashwood, after as gallant an action as has been fought, this war; the following account is collected from an officer of the ship; on the evening of the 31st ult. at 8 P. M. Captain Dashwood discovered a large frigate to windward standing towards the Slyph, Captain Dashwood with great gallantry lay to, to receive her; when she came within pistol shot, a very heavy fire commenced on both sides, which was continued with great spirit for one hour and twenty  minutes, when the enemy's fire slackened, and her foreyard came down ; on the forecastle however, she made sail, and being less disabled than the Sylph, got some miles off to windward ; the Sylph having received 58 shot in her hull, 122 shot through her fore and aft mainsail, a shot in her stern, and one between wind and water, her main mast badly wounded, making then about a foot and a half water in an hour, could not pursue her; during the night Captain Dashwood, with the assistance of his officers and crew, got the damages somewhat repaired; in the morning Captain D. saw the enemy's ship about six miles to windward; he endeavoured to make sail after her as well as his situation would admit of, from sunrise till half past 7 o'clock, A.M., the enemy's frigate perceiving this, changed her course, and stood in shore; Captain D. finding the Sylph made much water; bore away for the Channel Fleet, and was ordered for this port to refit, where he arrived safe, and went up the harbour in the course of the day; though the action was so warm, and lasted so long, fortunately the Sylph had only one man killed, 6 slightly wounded, and 3 badly ; the French frigate did not shew any colours during the action, but in on information Captain D. has received, it appears, that she is either La Guerrier, or L'Artemise, each of 44 guns, and must have escaped from Bourdeaux, the Rochefort squadron are too closely blocked up to get out; great credit is due to Captain Dashwood, his officers, and ship´s company, for their very spirited conduct in this unequal content.

Anmerkung von Diese Zeitungsnotiz basiert offenbar auf mündlichen Angaben eines Augenzeugen. Es ergibt sich hier bei der Schadensbilanz der SYLPH eine wesentliche Diskrepanz zum Bericht Dashwoods. Der Commander spricht von mehreren Treffern in der Wasserlinie, die Notiz spricht von lediglich einem gefechtsbedingten Leck.

Die NAVAL CHRONICLE schreibt zum Aufenthalt in Plymouth:

The Sylph, of 18 guns, Captain Dashwood, has had her masts taken out, examined, and put in again, and her damages repaired which she sustained in her late gallant aclion, with L'Artemise, of 44 guns, off Cape Ortegal.

Anmerkung von Das die Informationen in der CHRONICLE fehleranfällig waren, zeigt sich hier und weiter unten: Das Gefecht fand nicht vor Kap Ortegal, sondern vor Kap Anadaro statt, also eine Diskrepanz von gut 300 km.

11. September 1801

Passed by to the westward, the large East-India, Straits, and Newfoundland fleets, outward-bound, under convoy of the Triumph, of 74 guns, Captain Sir R. Barlow, Bart, and Alcmene, of 32 guns, Captain Devonshire, with a fine breeze at S. E. By the latest accounts from the coast of France, it appears that the frigate, of 44 guns, so handsomely beaten by the little Sylph, of 18 guns, Captain Dashwood, was the Artemise which escaped from Bourdeaux and got into Corunna.

Anmerkung von Das Schiff lief laut Dashwood wieder nach Santander zurück. Der Schreiber geht aber fälschlich von einem Duell vor Kap Ortegal aus und schickt den Gegner der SYLPH in den nächsten Hafen, also nach La Coruna.

14. Oktober 1801

Came in La Juste, of 84 guns, Captain Sir E. Nagle, Knight, from the Channel fleet. By letters from the Sylph, of 18 guns, Captain Dashwood, dated 1st October, off Cape Penas, it appears that on the eigth ult. she fell in with at dusk, a large French frigate, of 44 guns, which she brought to action in the most gallant manner for two hours and five minutes, obliging her to sheer off; the Sylph too much damaged to follow her; only one midshipman was wounded on board the Sylph; by neutrals Capt. D. learnt that she was L'Artemise, of 44 guns, and 350 men, which she so gallantly beat off Cape Ortegal, about six weeks since on her passage from Bourdeaux to St. Andero, with money for the Trench army in Spain ; she was now returning to Bourdeaux, during which period the Sylph had been refitted here and sailed again for the coast of Spain on a cruise, when she fell in with her former antagonist and beat her off a second time, although so inferior in force to L'Artemise.

30. Oktober 1801

Came in from a long cruise off the coast of Spain, the little Sylph, of 18 guns, Captain Dashwood ; she looked into St. Andero, and there found L'Artemise, of 44 guns, dismantled for repairs; by a neutral vessel, it is learnt, that after the first gallant action with L'Artemise, of 44 guns, by the Sylph, off St. Andero, the French Captain was dismissed the ship.

Anmerkung von Zum Geheimnis der ARTEMISE hier clicken

Schlachten und Duelle
Personen und Biografien
Der ganze andere Plunder

Napoleons gefallenen Göttinnen

Napoleons gefallene Göttinnen
Die Geschichte der französischen MINERVE-Fregatten

von Thomas Siebe
Sprache: Deutsch Paperback - 349 Seiten - BoD
ISBN 978-3-8391-0218-3 Erscheinungsdatum: Mai 2009
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Royal Navy Biography

von John Marshall
London 1931
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